Exploring HLA-DQA & HLA-DQB Polymorphisms in Local Population of Pakistan

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.69547/tsfjb.v1i1.9

Keywords:

Human leukocyte antigen, HLA polymorphism, Genetic diversity, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, Allelic frequency

Abstract

Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are pivotal in immune regulation, crucial in organ transplants. Allelic frequencies at HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 were compared across age, gender, patient/donor status, blood group, cities, and ethnicity in 100 participants. DNA extracted from blood samples underwent quantification, hybridization, and sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) typing. Match IT DNA software analyzed SSO typing, and statistical tools including Student's T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) assessed data, utilizing GraphPad Prism 6 and Microsoft Excel. Findings revealed varying allele frequencies across parameters. Locally, DQA106 and DQB104 were less common, contrasting with DQA101 and DQB103 prevalence. Among ethnic groups, Punjabis showed higher DQA101 frequency, while DQB1 alleles were less common. Regarding blood groups, DQA101/02/05/06 and DQB102/04/05 were prominent in O+ individuals, with DQA103 and DQB103 in B+ individuals. Males displayed higher DQA106 and DQB103 prevalence than females. Across age groups, DQA1 dominance was observed in age group II compared to DQB1 alleles. DQB101 and DQA1*03 were more frequent in donors than patients. Due to balancing selection, DQA1 had the highest allelic frequency, while DQB1 had the lowest. This study offers valuable insights into HLA II loci allele frequencies, aiding in understanding the Pakistani population's immunogenetic landscape.

References

Al Yafei, Z., Mack, S. J., Alvares, M., Ali, B. R., Afandi, B., Beshyah, S. A., . . . Nasr, A. J. F. i. G. (2022). HLA-DRB1 and–DQB1 Alleles, Haplotypes and Genotypes in Emirati Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Underscores the Benefits of Evaluating Understudied Populations. 13, 841879. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.841879

Baek, I.-C., Choi, E.-J., Shin, D.-H., Kim, H.-J., Choi, H., & Kim, T.-G. J. P. o. (2021). Allele and haplotype frequencies of human leukocyte antigen-A,-B,-C,-DRB1,-DRB3/4/5,-DQA1,-DQB1,-DPA1, and-DPB1 by next generation sequencing-based typing in Koreans in South Korea. 16(6), e0253619. https://doi.org/0.1371/ journal.pone.0253619

Bravo-Egana, V., Sanders, H., & Chitnis, N. J. H. I. (2021). New challenges, new opportunities: Next generation sequencing and its place in the advancement of HLA typing. 82(7), 478-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. humimm.2021.01.010

Carey, B. S., Poulton, K. V., & Poles, A. J. I. j. o. i. (2019). Factors affecting HLA expression: A review. 46(5), 307-320. https://doi.org/10.1111/iji.12443

Farina, F., Picascia, S., Pisapia, L., Barba, P., Vitale, S., Franzese, A., . . . Del Pozzo G, G. J. C. (2019). HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles, conferring susceptibility to celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, are more expressed than non-predisposing alleles and are coordinately regulated. 8(7), 751. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070751

Hajjej, A., Saldhana, F. L., Dajani, R., & Almawi, W. Y. J. G. (2020). HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 and-DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies and phylogenetic analysis of Bahraini population. 735, 144399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene. 2020.144399

Hui, K. M. (2020). Handbook of HLA typing techniques: CRC press. ISBN 9780849305580

Hurley, C. K. J. H. i. (2021). Naming HLA diversity: a review of HLA nomenclature. 82(7), 457-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2020.03.005

Khdair, S. I., Jarrar, W., Jarrar, Y. B., Bataineh, S., Al-Khaldi, O. J. E., Metabolic, & Targets, I. D.-D. (2020). Association of HLA-DRB1 and-DQ alleles and haplotypes with Type 1 diabetes in jordanians. 20(6), 895-902. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871530319666191119114031

Kim, J. J., Fuggle, S. V., & Marks, S. D. J. P. N. (2021). Does HLA matching matter in the modern era of renal transplantation, 36, 31-40.https:// doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04393-6

Kramer, C. S., Koster, J., Haasnoot, G. W., Roelen, D. L., Claas, F. H., & Heidt, S. J. H. (2020). HLA‐EMMA: a user‐friendly tool to analyse HLA class I and class II compatibility on the amino acid level. 96(1), 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/tan.13883

Lin, A., & Yan, W.-H. J. F. i. i. (2019). The emerging roles of human leukocyte antigen-F in immune modulation and viral infection. 10, 964. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00964

Liu, B., Shao, Y., Fu, R. J. I., Inflammation, & Disease. (2021). Current research status of HLA in immune‐related diseases. 9(2), 340-350. https://doi.org/10.1002/iid3.416

Mahdi, B. M. J. h. l. a. (2019). Introductory chapter: concept of human leukocyte antigen (HLA). 1-8. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.83727/

Reindl‐Schwaighofer, R., Heinzel, A., Gualdoni, G. A., Mesnard, L., Claas, F. H., & Oberbauer, R. J. T. I. (2020). Novel insights into non‐HLA alloimmunity in kidney transplantation. 33(1), 5-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/ tri.13546

Roldan-Marin, R., Rangel-Gamboa, L., Vega-Memije, M. E., Hernández-Doño, S., Ruiz-Gómez, D., Granados, J. J. I. J. o. D., Venereology, & Leprology. (2022). Human leukocyte antigen Class II alleles associated with acral lentiginous melanoma in Mexican Mestizo patients: A case-control study. 88(5), 608-614. https://doi.org/ 10.25259/IJDVL_627_19

Smith, C. C., Selitsky, S. R., Chai, S., Armistead, P. M., Vincent, B. G., & Serody, J. S. J. N. R. C. (2019). Alternative tumour-specific antigens. 19(8), 465-478. https://doi.org/ 10.1038/s41568-019-0162-4

Solomon, S. R., Aubrey, M. T., Zhang, X., Jackson, K. C., Morris, L. E., Holland, H. K., Bashey, A. J. B. A. (2020). Class II HLA mismatch improves outcomes following haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide. 4(20), 5311-5321. https://doi.org/ 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003110

Tavasolian, F., Rashidi, M., Hatam, G. R., Jeddi, M., Hosseini, A. Z., Mosawi, S. H., Inman, R. D. J. F. i. i. (2021). HLA, immune response, and susceptibility to COVID-19. 11, 601886. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu. 2020.601886

Yi, J., Chen, L., Xiao, Y., Zhao, Z., & Su, X. J. B. i. B. (2021). Investigations of sequencing data and sample type on HLA class Ia typing with different computational tools. 22(3), bbaa143. https://doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa143

Downloads

Published

2023-06-14

How to Cite

Quddus, F., & Batool, S. S. (2023). Exploring HLA-DQA & HLA-DQB Polymorphisms in Local Population of Pakistan. TSF Journal of Biology , 1(1), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.69547/tsfjb.v1i1.9