Study of Copper Bioremediation by Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Bacteria Isolated from Indigenous Environment




atomic absorption, spectrophotometer, biofilms, bioremediation, minimum inhibitory concentration


This research aimed to isolate copper-resistant bacteria from industrial effluents for potential bioremediation in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. Out of ten isolates from industrial effluents, four bacterial strains (S1A, S2C, SSA, and S1C) wereselected based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and biofilm-forming capabilities. These bacteria demonstrated strong biofilm formation abilities in both the absence and presence of copper (Cu) stress, with MIC values of 850 μg/ml for S1A, SSA, and S1C, and 750 μg/ml for S2C. Physiological characterization revealed that these isolates exhibited optimal growth at pH 7 and 37°C. Biochemical characterization indicated the similarity of these copper-resistant bacteria with the genera Staphylococcus (S1C), Bacillus (SSA), Corynebacterium (S1A), and Enterobacter (S2C). The copper removal efficiency of these isolates was assessed in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes using atomic absorption spectroscopy. In planktonic growth, all isolates showed copper removal efficiencies of 81.4% (S1A), 81% (SSA), 83.5% (S2C), and 82.3% (S1C) after 24 hours, and 84% (S1A), 83.4% (SSA), 85.3% (S2C), and 84.2% (S1C) after 48 hours. Notably, in planktonic growth, S2C (Staphylococcus) exhibited the highest removalefficiency, with 83.5% and 85.3% after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. In the biofilm growth mode, copper removal efficiencies were 84.2% (S1A), 82.7% (SSA), 81.9% (S2C), and 84% (S1C) after 24 hours, and 86.7% (S1A), 86.1% (SSA), 85.6% (S2C), and 86.2% (S1C) after 48 hours. Notably, S1A (Corynebacterium) displayed the highest copper removal efficiency, with 84.2% and 86.7% after 24-and 48-hour incubation in biofilm growth modes.KEYWORDSAtomic absorption spectrophotometer, Biofilms, Bioremediation, Minimum inhibitory concentration.


Priya A, Gnanasekaran L, Dutta K, Rajendran S, Balakrishnan D, Soto-Moscoso M. Biosorption of heavy metals by microorganisms, Evaluation of different underlying mechanisms. Chemosphere. 2022;307:135957.

Asmatand Wadood13TSF Journal of Biology Volume 1 Issue 1, 20232.Oziegbe O, Oluduro A, Oziegbe E, Ahuekwe E, Olorunsola SJ. Assessment of heavy metal bioremediation potential of bacterial isolates from landfill soils. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021;28:3948-3956.

Xin X, Zhao F, Rho JY, Goodrich SL, Sumerlin BS, He ZJ. Use of polymeric nanoparticles to improve seed germination and plant growth under copper stress. Sci Total Environ. 2020;745:141055.

Li M, Chen N, Shang H. An electrochemical strategy for simultaneous heavy metal complexes wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Environ Sci Technol. 2022;56:10945-10953. Epub 2022 Jul 13

Yan J, Zuo X, Yang S, Chen R, Cai T, Ding DJ. Evaluation of potassium ferrate activated biochar for the simultaneous adsorption of copper and sulfadiazine: Competitive versus synergistic. J Hazard Mater. 2022;424:127435.

Öztürk Y, Blaby-Haas CE, Daum N. Maturation of Rhodobacter capsulatus multicopper oxidase CutO depends on the CopA copper efflux pathway and requires the cutF product. Front Microbiol. 2021;12:720644.

Irawati W, Djojo ES, Kusumawati L, Yuwono T, Pinontoan RJ. Optimizing bioremediation: elucidating copper accumulation mechanisms of Acinetobacter sp. IrC2 isolated from an industrial waste treatment center. Front Microbiol. 2021;12:713812.

Monga A, Fulke AB, Gaud A, Sharma A, Ram A, Dasgupta D. Isolation and identification of novel chromium-tolerant bacterial strains from a heavy metal-polluted urban creek: An assessment of bioremediation efficiency and flocculant production. An Int J Mar Sci. 2022;38:1233-1244.

Sharma S, Mohler J, Mahajan SD, Schwartz SA, Bruggemann L, Aalinkeel RJ. Microbial Biofilm: A Review on Formation, Infection, Antibiotic Resistance, Control Measures, and Innovative Treatment. Microorganisms. 2023;11:1614.

.Pande V, Pandey SC, Sati D, Bhatt P, Samant M. Microbial interventions in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminants in agroecosystem. Front Microbiol. 2022;13:824084.

Rocha GA, Ferreira RB. Antimicrobial polysaccharides obtained from natural sources. Future Microbiol. 2022;17:701-716.

Tang P-C, Eriksson O, Sjögren J, et al. A microfluidic chip for studies of the dynamics of antibiotic resistance selection in bacterial biofilms. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022;12:896149.

Çam APDS. The Role of Bacterial Exopolysaccharides on the Amelioration of Salt Stress in Plants. Integr Altern Farm Models. 2022:133.

Rao TS. Microfouling in industrial cooling water systems. Water-Formed Deposits. Elsevier; 2022:79-95.

Bezza FA, Tichapondwa SM, Chirwa EM. Fabrication of monodispersed copper oxide nanoparticles with potential application as antimicrobial agents. Sci Rep. 2020;10:16680.

Gopi K, Jinal HN, Prittesh P, Kartik VP, Amaresan N. Effect of copper-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on maize (Zea mays) growth, physiological properties, and copper accumulation: potential for phytoremediation into biofortification. Int J Phytoremediation. 2020;22(6):662-668.

Tahmourespour A. Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Co-Resistance in Bacterial Isolates of Industrial Effluents. Ab va Fazilab (in Persian). 2021;32:12-20.

Lee SJ, Mamun M, Atique U, An KG. Fish Tissue Contamination with Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metals: Link between Land Use and Ecological Health. Water. 2023;15:1845.

Osman GE, Abulreesh HH, Elbanna K, Shaaban MR, Ahmad I. Recent Progress in Metal-Microbe Interactions: Prospects in Bioremediation. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2019;13(1).

Balali-Mood M, Naseri K, Tahergorabi Z, Khazdair MR, Sadeghi M. Toxic mechanisms of five heavy metals: mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic. Front Pharmacol. 2021:227.

Catania S, Bottinelli M, Fincato A, et al. Evaluation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for 154 Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from Italy collected during 2012-2017. PLoS One. 2019;14:e0224903.

Muhammad MH, Idris AL, Fan X, et al. Beyond risk: bacterial biofilms and their regulating approaches. Front Microbiol. 2020;11:928.



2023-06-14 — Updated on 2023-06-10


How to Cite

Asmat, S., & Wadood, H. Z. (2023). Study of Copper Bioremediation by Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Bacteria Isolated from Indigenous Environment. TSF Journal of Biology , 1(1), 5–18. (Original work published June 14, 2023)