Comparative Analysis Of Antibacterial And Antifungal Activity Of AgNPs With Conjugated Curcumin AgNPs



AgNPs, Nanoparticles, UV-visible spectrophotometer, FTIR Analysis, Curcumin, Antimicrobial activity


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are potent antimicrobial agents, extensively used against a wide variety of microorganisms. Several techniques have been developed to chemically synthesize silver nanoparticles but limited their application due to their cytotoxicity and safety concerns for humans and the environment. The current study summarized the preparation of silver nanoparticles from a reaction of silver nitrate with grapefruit extract and to compare the antimicrobial activities of AgNPs and Cur-AgNPs. A natural phenolic compound having mild antimicrobial potential, curcumin was conjugated with initially synthesized silver nanoparticles (Cur-AgNPs) and characterization was performed before and after conjugation by using UV-visible spectrophotometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The antimicrobial activity of both AgNPs and Cur-AgNPs was assessed against microbial species including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results led to the conclusion that Cur-AgNPs have more antibacterial and antifungal activity than silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The antibacterial potential of AgNPs and Cur-AgNPs was evaluated by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition in cm. The maximum zone of inhibition measured while using conjugated Cur-AgNPs at a concentration of 0.4mg/uL was 2cm, 1.9cm and 2.2cm against fungus, E.coli and P.aeruginosa respectively. The conjugation of curcumin to silver nanoparticles devised a new biocidal agent and lifted the industrial biomedical application of silver nanoparticles with less toxicity towards the ecosystem.



Xu L, Wang Y-Y, Huang J, Chen C-Y, Wang Z-X, Xie H. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, medical applications and biosafety. Theranostics. 2020;10(20):8996. eCollection 2020.

Bruna T, Maldonado-Bravo F, Jara P, Caro N. Silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial applications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22(13):7202. 10.3390/ijms22137202.

Waszczykowska A, Żyro D, Ochocki J, Jurowski P. Clinical Application and Efficacy of Silver Drug in Ophthalmology: A Literature Review and New Formulation of EYE Drops with Drug Silver (I) Complex of Metronidazole with Improved Dosage Form. Biomedicines. 2021;9(2):210.

Nakamura S, Sato M, Sato Y, et al. Synthesis and Application of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for the Prevention of Infection in Healthcare Workers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019;20(15):3620.

Gao SS, Zhao IS, Duffin S, Duangthip D, Lo ECM, Chu CH. Revitalising Silver Nitrate for Caries Management. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(1):80.

Talapko J, Matijević T, Juzbašić M, Antolović-Požgain A, Škrlec I. Antibacterial Activity of Silver and Its Application in Dentistry, Cardiology and Dermatology. Microorganisms. 2020;8(9):1400.

Yin IX, Zhang J, Zhao IS, Mei ML, Li Q, Chu CH. The antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and its application in dentistry. International journal of nanomedicine. 2020:2555-2562.

Rezvani E, Rafferty A, McGuinness C, Kennedy J. Adverse effects of nanosilver on human health and the environment. Acta biomaterialia. 2019;94:145-159.

Yaqoob AA, Ahmad H, Parveen T, et al. Recent advances in metal decorated nanomaterials and their various biological applications: A review. Frontiers in chemistry. 2020;8:341.

Siddiqi KS, Husen A, Rao RA. A review on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biocidal properties. Journal of nanobiotechnology. 2018;16(1):14.

Stanly C, Alfieri M, Ambrosone A, Leone A, Fiume I, Pocsfalvi G. Grapefruit-Derived Micro and Nanovesicles Show Distinct Metabolome Profiles and Anticancer Activities in the A375 Human Melanoma Cell Line. Cells. 2020;9(12):2722.

Roy S, Zhang W, Biswas D, Ramakrishnan R, Rhim J-W. Grapefruit Seed Extract-Added Functional Films and Coating for Active Packaging Applications: A Review. Molecules. 2023;28(2):730.

Lu J, Zhang D, Zhang X, et al. Network Analysis of the Herb–Drug Interactions of Citrus Herbs Inspired by the “Grapefruit Juice Effect”. ACS omega. 2022;7(40):35911-35923.

Bokhary KA, Maqsood F, Amina M, Aldarwesh A, Mofty HK, Al-yousef HM. Grapefruit Extract-Mediated Fabrication of Photosensitive Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential. Nanomaterials. 2022;12(11):1885.

Skiba MI, Vorobyova VI. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Orange Peel Extract Prepared by Plasmochemical Extraction Method and Degradation of Methylene Blue under Solar Irradiation. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2019/10/09 2019;2019:8306015.

Giordano A, Tommonaro G. Curcumin and Cancer. Nutrients. 2019;11(10):2376.

Catanzaro M, Corsini E, Rosini M, Racchi M, Lanni C. Immunomodulators inspired by nature: a review on curcumin and echinacea. Molecules. 2018;23(11):2778.

Dei Cas M, Ghidoni R. Dietary Curcumin: Correlation between Bioavailability and Health Potential. Nutrients. 2019;11(9):2147.

Stohs SJ, Chen O, Ray SD, Ji J, Bucci LR, Preuss HG. Highly Bioavailable Forms of Curcumin and Promising Avenues for Curcumin-Based Research and Application: A Review. Molecules. 2020;25(6):1397.

Yeung AWK, Horbańczuk M, Tzvetkov NT, et al. Curcumin: total-scale analysis of the scientific literature. Molecules. 2019;24(7):1393.

Rahmani AH, Alsahli MA, Aly SM, Khan MA, Aldebasi YH. Role of curcumin in disease prevention and treatment. Advanced biomedical research. 2018;7.

Scazzocchio B, Minghetti L, D’Archivio M. Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Curcumin: A New Key of Understanding for the Health Effects of Curcumin. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2499.

Flandroy L, Poutahidis T, Berg G, et al. The impact of human activities and lifestyles on the interlinked microbiota and health of humans and of ecosystems. Science of the total environment. 2018;627:1018-1038.

Yavarpour-Bali H, Ghasemi-Kasman M, Pirzadeh M. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles: A novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of central nervous system disorders. International journal of nanomedicine. 2019:4449-4460.

Maiti P, Dunbar GL. Use of curcumin, a natural polyphenol for targeting molecular pathways in treating age-related neurodegenerative diseases. International journal of molecular sciences. 2018;19(6):1637.

Moniruzzaman M, Min T. Curcumin, Curcumin Nanoparticles and Curcumin Nanospheres: A Review on Their Pharmacodynamics Based on Monogastric Farm Animal, Poultry and Fish Nutrition. Pharmaceutics. 2020;12(5):447.

Mohammadi E, Amini SM, Mostafavi SH, Amini SM. An overview of antimicrobial efficacy of curcumin-silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine Research Journal. 2021;6(2):105-111.

Song Z, Wu Y, Wang H, Han H. Synergistic antibacterial effects of curcumin modified silver nanoparticles through ROS-mediated pathways. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2019;99:255-263.

Badi’Ah H, Seedeh F, Supriyanto G, Zaidan A. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the development in analysis method. IOP Publishing; 2019:012005.

Targhi AA, Moammeri A, Jamshidifar E, et al. Synergistic effect of curcumin-Cu and curcumin-Ag nanoparticle loaded niosome: Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2021;115:105116.

Ali I, Ahmed SB, Elhaj BM, Ali HS, Alsubaie A, Almalki AS. Enhanced anticancer activities of curcumin-loaded green gum acacia-based silver nanoparticles against melanoma and breast cancer cells. Applied Nanoscience. 2021;11:2679-2687.

Al-Namil DS, Patra D. Green solid-state based curcumin mediated rhamnolipids stabilized silver nanoparticles: Interaction of silver nanoparticles with cystine and albumins towards fluorescence sensing. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2019;173:647-653.

Wasilewska A, Klekotka U, Zambrzycka M, Zambrowski G, Święcicka I, Kalska-Szostko B. Physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles fabricated by green synthesis. Food Chemistry. 2023;400:133960.

Maillard APF, Dalmasso PR, de Mishima BAL, Hollmann A. Interaction of green silver nanoparticles with model membranes: possible role in the antibacterial activity. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2018;171:320-326.

Gunawan C, Faiz MB, Mann R, et al. Nanosilver targets the bacterial cell envelope: the link with generation of reactive oxygen radicals. ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2020;12(5):5557-5568. doi: 10.1021/acsami.9b20193.

Zheng D, Huang C, Huang H, et al. Antibacterial mechanism of curcumin: A review. Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2020;17(8):e2000171.

Adeyemi OS, Obeme-Imom JI, Akpor BO, Rotimi D, Batiha GE-s, Owolabi A. Altered redox status, DNA damage and modulation of L-tryptophan metabolism contribute to the antimicrobial action of curcumin. Heliyon. 2020;6(3).

Jaiswal S, Mishra P. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of curcumin-silver nanoparticles with improved stability and selective toxicity to bacteria over mammalian cells. Medical microbiology and immunology. 2018;207:39-53.

Gupta A, Briffa SM, Swingler S, et al. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using curcumin-cyclodextrins loaded into bacterial cellulose-based hydrogels for wound dressing applications. Biomacromolecules. 2020;21(5):1802-1811.




How to Cite

Ameen, E., Tanveer, R., Mukhtar, A., Fatima, M., & Bilal, M. (2023). Comparative Analysis Of Antibacterial And Antifungal Activity Of AgNPs With Conjugated Curcumin AgNPs. TSF Journal of Biology , 1(2), 46–62. Retrieved from