Prevalence of UTI causing pathogens among different subgroups of the local population

Authors

Keywords:

Urinary tract infection, UTI, Uropathogens, Antibiotic susceptibility

Abstract

The Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent and contagious infection, caused by range of pathogens, affecting an estimated 150 million people around the globe every year. The current study has investigated the prevalence of UTI among the local population of Pakistan. The urine samples of 200 patients were collected based on different UTI related symptoms and the infection was detected through quantitative urine culture and microscopic enumeration of urine leukocytes. Then UTI causing pathogens were isolated from positive samples and their sensitivity against antibiotics was checked through antimicrobial susceptibility method. The E.coli was the most predominant uropathogen found among all the positive samples followed by Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Proteus species, and Enterococcus. The comparative analysis of UTI between both males and females showed that UTI is highly prevalent among female patients as compared to males especially in adult age ranges from 21-30 years due to hormonal changes and pregnancy. All the isolated pathogens were differentially sensitive against conventional antibiotics but they showed highest sensitivity against imipenem while highest resistivity against ampicillin. This study has also shown that the excessive use of antibiotics leads to the drug resistance and increases the chance of any bacterial infection. 

References

Byron JKJVCSAP. Urinary tract infection. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice. 2019;49(2):211-221. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2018.11.005

Klein RD, Hultgren SJJNRM. Urinary tract infections: microbial pathogenesis, host–pathogen interactions and new treatment strategies. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2020;18(4):211-226. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-0324-0

Sheerin NS, Glover EKJM. Urinary tract infection. Medicine. 2019;47(9):546-550. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2019.06.008

Czajkowski K, Broś-Konopielko M, Teliga-Czajkowska JJMRPM. Urinary tract infection in women. Menopause Review/Przegląd Menopauzalny. 2021;20(1):40-47. doi:https://doi.org/10.5114/pm.2021.105382

Wagenlehner FM, Bjerklund Johansen TE, Cai T, et al. Epidemiology, definition and treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Nature Reviews Urology. 2020;17(10):586-600. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41585-020-0362-4

Cai TJGid. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections: definitions and risk factors. GMS Infectious Diseases. 2021;9doi:https://doi.org/10.3205/id000072

Anger J, Lee U, Ackerman AL, et al. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: AUA/CUA/SUFU guideline. The Journal of Urology. 2019;202(2):282-289. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000296

Akiyama Y, Luo Y, Hanno PM, Maeda D, Homma YJIjou. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: The evolving landscape, animal models and future perspectives. International Journal of Urology. 2020;27(6):491-503. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/iju.14229

Kolman KBJPCCiOP. Cystitis and pyelonephritis: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2019;46(2):191-202. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2019.01.001

Kim B, Kim J-H, Lee YJAoLM. Virulence factors associated with Escherichia coli bacteremia and urinary tract infection. Annals of Laboratory Medicine. 2022;42(2):203-212. doi:https://doi.org/10.3343/alm.2022.42.2.203

Yoon SH, Shin H, Lee KH, et al. Predictive factors for bacteremia in febrile infants with urinary tract infection. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):4469. doi:| https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61421-4

Storme O, Tirán Saucedo J, Garcia-Mora A, Dehesa-Dávila M, Naber KGJTaiu. Risk factors and predisposing conditions for urinary tract infection. Therapeutic Advances in Urology. 2019;11:1756287218814382. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1756287218814382

Alzahrani MA, Ali MS, Anwar SJJoP, Sciences B. Bacteria causing urinary tract infections and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern at tertiary hospital in Al-Baha region, Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences. 2020;12(4):449. doi:https://doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_294_19

Kranz J, Schmidt S, Wagenlehner F, Schneidewind LJDÄI. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult patients: Preventive strategies and treatment options. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 2020;117(6):83. doi:https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2020.0083

Josephs-Spaulding J, Krogh TJ, Rettig HC, et al. Recurrent urinary tract infections: unraveling the complicated environment of uncomplicated rUTIs. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021;11:562525. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.562525

Tetz GV, Kardava KM, Vecherkovskaya MF, Tsifansky MD, Tetz VVJUCR. Treatment of chronic relapsing urinary tract infection with antibiotics selected by AtbFinder. Urology Case Reports. 2023;46:102312. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2022.102312

Folliero V, Caputo P, Della Rocca MT, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens in urinary tract infections in University Hospital of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” between 2017 and 2018. Antibiotics. 2020;9(5):215. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9050215

Rosello A, Pouwels K, De Cellès MD, et al. Seasonality of urinary tract infections in the United Kingdom in different age groups: longitudinal analysis of The Health Improvement Network (THIN). Epidemiology & Infection. 2018;146(1):37-45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881700259X

Fritzenwanker M, Grabitz MO, Arneth B, et al. Comparison of Urine Flow Cytometry on the UF-1000i System and Urine Culture of Urine Samples from Urological Patients. Urologia Internationalis. 2022;106(8):858-868. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000520166

Said A, El-Gamal MS, Abu-Elghait M, Salem SSJLAN. Isolation, identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection bacterial isolates. Letters in Applied NanoBioScience. 2021;10:2820-2830. doi:https://doi.org/10.33263/LIANBS104.28202830

Weinstein MP, Lewis JSJJocm. The clinical and laboratory standards institute subcommittee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing: background, organization, functions, and processes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2020;58(3):10.1128/jcm. 01864-19. doi:https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.01864-19

Zubair KU, Shah AH, Fawwad A, Sabir R, Butt AJPJoMS. Frequency of urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens in patients with diabetes. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2019;35(6):1664. doi:https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.35.6.115

Lee AC, Mullany LC, Koffi AK, et al. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy in a rural population of Bangladesh: population-based prevalence, risk factors, etiology, and antibiotic resistance. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020;20(1):1-11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2665-0

Johnson CY, Rocheleau CM, Howley MM, et al. Characteristics of women with urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Journal of Women's Health. 2021;30(11):1556-1564. doi:https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2020.8946

Zalewska-Piątek BM, Piątek RJJABP. Alternative treatment approaches of urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains-Review. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2019;66(2):129-138. doi:https://doi.org/10.18388/abp.2018_2787

Ullah A, Shah S, Almugadam B, Sadiqui SJMBM. Prevalence of symptomatic urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated uropathogens in kohat region of Pakistan. MOJ Biology and Medicine. 2018;3(4):85-89. doi:https://doi.org/10.15406/mojbm.2018.03.00082

Asmat U, Mumtaz MZ, Malik AJJoTUMS. Rising prevalence of multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria from urinary tract infections in pregnant women. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2021;16(1):102-111. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.10.010

Downloads

Published

2023-09-20

How to Cite

Jawad, R., & Hira, C. e. (2023). Prevalence of UTI causing pathogens among different subgroups of the local population. TSF Journal of Biology , 1(2), 16–27. Retrieved from https://tsfjb.com/ojs/index.php/tsfjb/article/view/14